It took me a while but today I got everything synced up. Cubase sending a MIDI signal to my MSQ-700 which is controlling my TR-808 which is triggering my CSQ-600 which is sequencing my SH-09. Thank goodness!
By the way, this diagram is not how I did it, it isn't a legitimate visual aid, it's just a nice picture. In my life, the MSQ is going to that 808 sync DIN input. And the trigger AC is controlling the steps of the CSQ. I must say, besides all the other reasons the MSQ-700 is amazing, that it's able to connect MIDI with Roland sync devices is such a bonus!